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biofuel terms

Biodiesel: Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from new and used vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel is safe, biodegradable, and reduces air pollutants such as PM, CO, HC and air toxics. However, emissions of NOx increase with the concentration of biodiesel in the fuel. Some biodiesel produces more NOx than others, and some additives have shown promise in modifying the increases. 
Blends of 20% biodiesel with 80% petroleum diesel (B20) can be used in unmodified diesel engines. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form (B100), but may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems. Pure blends of biodiesel may not be suitable for cold climates. B20 reduces emissions of PM by about 10 percent. However, B20 also increases NOx emissions by approximately 2%. The B20 blend costs about 15 to 30 cents per gallon more than regular diesel fuel. B100 reduces emissions of PM by roughly 40 percent and costs about 75 cents to $1.50 more than regular diesel fuel. -EPA 
Catalytic Converter: A catalytic converter consists of a metal housing filled with a hard material which is covered with a catalytic compound. The presence of the catalytic converter in the engine exhaust system breaks down the chemicals in the exhaust and reduces harmful pollutant emissions. -EPA 
CCM Catalyzed Converter Muffler: Caterpillar’s CCM is a diesel oxidation catalyst within a muffler assembly. 
CCRTTM Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Technology: CCRT is a Johnson Matthey DPF system incorporating DOC and passive DPF technologies. 
CEMTM Catalytic Exhaust MufflerTM: CEMTM is one of Johnson Matthey’s diesel oxidation catalyst products. 
Closed Crankcase Filtration System: A small but significant amount of exhaust gas leaks out from around the seals of the moving pistons in the engine and is conventionally vented to the atmosphere through the crankcase. These vapors, which contain PM, water and traces of oil, can make their way into passenger compartments of trucks and buses. Closed crankcase systems include condensation filters to remove the oil and  

particulates, pressure regulators to protect the engine and ductwork to route the filtered gases back through the engine instead of to the atmosphere. 
CNG Compressed Natural Gas: CNG is a mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly methane, and is produced either from gas wells or in conjunction with crude oil production. Vehicles powered by CNG perform just like vehicles powered by diesel fuel. CNG buses can reduce emissions of PM by about 70 to 90 percent if they meet Clean Fueled Fleet requirements or have catalysts. CNG engines that do not have catalysts may have higher formaldehyde, hydrocarbon, and ultra-fine PM emissions than Clean Diesel engines meeting EPA's 2007 emission standard for PM. The cost of CNG varies, but generally is comparable to the cost of regular diesel fuel. However, the cost of a new CNG vehicle can be much higher than a comparable diesel vehicle. Additionally, CNG buses require special refueling facilities as well as special maintenance facilities, both of which are expensive. -EPA 
CO Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless and poisonous gas produced by the burning of fuels. Automobiles are the primary source of CO pollution. When CO enters the bloodstream, it reduces the delivery of oxygen to the body's organs and tissues. Health threats are most serious for those who suffer from cardiovascular disease, particularly those with angina or peripheral vascular disease. Exposure to elevated CO levels can cause impairment of visual perception, manual dexterity, learning ability and performance of complex tasks. 77% of the nationwide CO emissions are from transportation sources. The largest emissions contribution comes from highway motor vehicles. Thus, the focus of CO monitoring has been in urban areas where the main source of CO is motor vehicle exhaust. Other major CO sources are wood-burning stoves, incinerators and factories. -EPA 
CO2 Carbon Dioxide: Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas which is a natural byproduct of the combustion of all types of fuels. It is also produced by respiration. It is a greenhouse gas, which can contribute to global warming. 
CRT® Continuously Regenerating Technology: CRT® is Johnson Matthey’s version of a passive DPF. (See DPF and Passive DPF.) 
CWMF Catalyzed Wire Mesh Filter: A CWMF is a type of lightly catalyzed particulate filter designed to be used with a platinum-based, fuel borne catalyst to reduce particulates in diesel exhaust. (See FBC.)  

DPM Diesel Particulate Matter (diesel PM) – That portion of the exhaust from a diesel fueled compression ignition engine that is collected via a particulate matter sampling method. Diesel PM consists of several constituents, including: an elemental carbon fraction, a soluble organic fraction and a sulfate fraction. The majority of diesel PM (i.e., 98%) is smaller than 10 microns in diameter. 
DFX DFX (or Platinum Plus® DFX) is Clean Diesel Technologies’ line of fuel borne catalysts. (See FBC.) 
DOC Diesel Oxidation Catalyst: DOCs are devices that use a chemical process to break down pollutants in the exhaust stream into less harmful components. Diesel oxidation catalysts can reduce emissions of PM by 20 percent and HC by 50 percent and CO by approximately 40 percent. Oxidation catalysts cost about $1,000 to $2,000, can be installed on any diesel engine, and run on regular diesel fuel. Although installation time can vary, field experience suggests it takes about 1 to 3 hours to install an oxidation catalyst. (See Oxidation Catalyst, Catalytic Converter.) –EPA 
DPF Diesel Particulate Filter: Diesel particulate filters are exhaust treatment devices that reduce diesel particulate matter through filtration. They can be installed on new and used buses, but must be used in conjunction with ULSD fuel. The combination of PM filters and ULSD can reduce emissions of PM, HC, and CO by 60 to 90 percent. 
DPFs must be periodically “regenerated” to remove the collected particulate matter. DPFs can incorporate passive regeneration techniques, such as the catalyzed particulate filter, or they can incorporate active regeneration techniques, such as the electrically regenerated particulate filter. (See Passive DPF.) –EPA & CARB 
DPXTM DPXTM is Engelhard’s passive DPF system. (See DPF and Passive DPF.) 
Emulsified Diesel Fuel: Emulsified diesel is a blended mixture of diesel fuel, water, and other additives that reduces emissions of PM as well as NOX. Emulsified diesel can be used in any diesel engine, but the addition of water reduces the energy content of the fuel, so some reduction in power and fuel economy can be expected. Emulsified fuel will stay mixed for a fairly long time. However, if a vehicle sits dormant for months at a time the water can settle out of the fuel and possibly cause problems. Therefore school buses may want to phase out the use of the fuel towards the end of the school year and then reintroduce it in the fall. Case studies suggest that emulsified diesel can reduce emissions of smog-causing NOX by about 10 - 20 percent and PM by about 50 - 60 percent. Emulsified diesel costs roughly 20 cents more per gallon than regular diesel fuel. 

ERG Exhaust Gas Recirculation: EGR systems are designed to reduce NOX emissions. Oxides of nitrogen are formed when the engine’s combustion chamber gets too hot. EGR systems consist of a series of timed valves that carry exhaust gases back to the intake. Since these gases cannot burn again, they chemically slow down and cool the combustion process, decreasing the amount of NOX produced. 
EGRT® Exhaust Gas Recirculation Technology is a Johnson Matthey product that combines EGR and passive DPF technologies. 
FBC Fuel Borne Catalyst: An FBC is a fuel additive containing one or more fuel-soluble metals that acts as a catalyst to lower the temperature at which regeneration occurs within a diesel particulate filter. -CARB 
HC Hydrocarbons: An exhaust and evaporative pollutant of hydrogen and carbon atoms resulting from unburned fuel. HC contributes to the formation of ozone which is responsible for the choking, coughing, and stinging eyes associated with smog. Ozone damages lung tissue, aggravates respiratory disease, and makes people more susceptible to respiratory infections. Children are especially vulnerable to ozone's harmful effects, as are adults with existing disease. -EPA 
LSD Low Sulfur Diesel fuel: Current EPA regulations specify that diesel test fuel contain 300 - 500 parts per million (ppm) sulfur for highway engines and 300 - 4000 ppm sulfur for nonroad engines. Significant reductions from these current sulfur levels are necessary in order for many retrofit technologies to provide meaningful, lasting emissions reductions. The manufacturers of these retrofit technologies will specify the maximum allowable sulfur level for effective operation of its products. In addition to enabling a wide array of emissions control technologies, the use of low sulfur alone reduces emissions of particulate matter. 
Sulfate, a major constituent of particulate matter, is produced as a byproduct of burning diesel fuel containing sulfur. Reducing the sulfur content of fuel in turn reduces sulfate byproducts of combustion and therefore particulate matter emissions. The retrofit program will verify particulate matter reductions from the use of low sulfur alone. For the purposes of the diesel retrofit program diesel fuel must contain less than 50 ppm sulfur to be considered a low sulfur fuel. -EPA 
NOX Nitrogen Oxides: Oxides of nitrogen are a family of reactive gaseous compounds that contribute to air pollution in both urban and rural environments. NOX emissions are produced during the combustion of fuels at high temperatures. The primary sources of atmospheric NOX include highway sources (such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles), nonroad  

sources (such as construction and agricultural equipment, and locomotives) and stationary sources (such as power plants and industrial boilers). NOX can irritate the lungs, cause bronchitis and pneumonia, and lower resistance to respiratory infections. Nitrogen oxides are an important precursor both to ozone and acid rain, and may affect both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. -EPA 
Oxidation Catalyst: A type of catalyst (catalytic converter) which chemically converts HC and CO to water vapor and carbon dioxide. (See Catalytic Converter.) -EPA 
Particulate ReactorTM: ESW’s Particulate Reactor™ is an oxidizing catalytic emission reduction system (see oxidation catalyst) which also incinerates carbon PM in diesel engine exhaust. ESW indicates that the unique converter substrate design forces carbon particles to relentlessly collide with the catalyzed fabric structure while making their way through these passages. Within the reactor sufficient temperatures are created to incinerate carbonaceous particulate matter. -ESW 
Particulate Trap: An aftertreatment device which filters or traps diesel particulate matter from engine exhaust until the trap becomes loaded to the point that a regeneration cycle is implemented to burn off the trapped particulate matter. DPFs are specialized particulate traps. -EPA 
PM Particulate Matter: Particulate matter includes dust, dirt, soot, smoke and liquid droplets directly emitted into the air by sources such as factories, power plants, cars, engines, construction activity, fires and natural windblown dust. Particles formed in the atmosphere by condensation or by the photochemical transformation of emitted gases are also considered particulate matter. -EPA 
Passive DPF: A passive DPF is a continuously regenerating DPF that contains a catalyzed substrate, which allows the filter to be regenerated at lower operating temperatures than those required for burning off the soot on a non-catalyzed filter. 
SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction: SCR is a technology designed to reduce NOX emissions by injecting a catalyst, usually ammonia, into the hot exhaust stream to convert NOX into nitrogen and CO2. The system consists of the pump/injector components plus sensors to insure adequately high temperature for the catalyst to work and to protect against engine damage. 
SO2 Sulfur Dioxide: Sulfur dioxide belongs to the family of sulfur oxide gases (SOx). SOx gases are byproducts of the combustion of fuels that contain sulfur. SO2 dissolves in water vapor to form acid, and interacts with other  

gases and particles in the air to form sulfates and other products that can be harmful to people and their environment. -EPA 
ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel: ULSD is diesel fuel that contains less than 15 parts per million sulfur. ULSD will be available nationwide in June 2006, but currently is available in certain parts of the country. The primary purpose of ULSD is to enable or improve the performance of aftertreatment technologies such as a PM filter. The quantity of emissions reductions from the use of ULSD alone will vary depending on the application, level of sulfur reduction, and other fuel characteristics of the replacement fuel (e.g., cetane number, aromatics, PNA). Some case studies suggest that the use of ULSD alone can reduce emissions of PM between 5 and 9 percent. While ULSD-only emission reductions for PM are relatively modest on a per-vehicle basis compared to aftertreatment retrofit, the emission reductions can be significant if an entire fleet is fueled with ULSD. The price differential between ULSD and regular diesel fuel varies by location but ranges between 8 and 20 cents per gallon. In 2006, when ULSD is available nationwide, the cost differential will be much less. -EPA 
 Afforestation • This is the process of establishing and growing
forests to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere on
land which has not been forested in recent history.
Biodiesel • Biodiesel is a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of
long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats
and produced using an accepted industry-wide quality assurance
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent • CO2e, is an internationally accepted
measure that expresses the amount of global warming of
greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is expressed in terms of the amount
of carbon dioxide (CO2) that would have the same global warming
Carbon Sequestration • This is the uptake and storage of carbon
through natural processes. Plants, for example, absorb carbon
dioxide and transform it into plant sugars that contain carbon.
Climate • The average weather, usually taken over a span of 30
years, for a particular region and time period is called climate. It
is not the same as weather, which describes the short-term state
of the atmosphere. Climate is the average pattern of weather
for a particular region. Climatic elements include precipitation,
temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind velocity and phenomena
such as fog, frost and hailstorms. (See also weather.)
Climate Change • A change in expected climatic conditions
that is in addition to natural climate variability over comparable
time periods is a climate change. This change may be attributed
directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the
composition of the global atmosphere.
Demand-Side Management • The planning, implementation,
and monitoring of activities designed to encourage consumers
to modify patterns of energy consuming activities including
the timing and level of demand. Demand-side management
may refer to energy conservation programs (energy demandside
management) or strategies that result in more efficient
use of transportation resources (transportation demand-side
E10 • A fuel containing a mixture of 10 per cent ethanol and 90
per cent gasoline.
E85 • A fuel containing a mixture of 85 per cent ethanol and 15
per cent gasoline.
Emissions • These are the release of pollutants that can be
transformed into greenhouse gases, and/or the direct release of
greenhouse gases, into the atmosphere over a specific area and
period of time.
Emissions Trading • Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol establishes
a mechanism through which those countries with emissions
commitments (industrialized countries) may trade their emission
allowances with other industrialized countries that are parties
to the protocol. For example, if a company in Canada reduces its
greenhouse gas emissions to less than what it was emitting in
1990, it will have an emissions credit. The company could then
sell its emission credit to an Australian firm that has not been
able to reduce its emissions to 1990 levels in the necessary
time frame. The aim of emissions trading is to improve the
overall flexibility and economic efficiency of making emissions
Ethanol • Ethanol is a high-octane, water-free alcohol that is
produced from renewable resources such as corn, wheat, straw
and other bio-mass. Ethanol can be used as a fuel, as an additive
to fuel or fuel extender, and as an industrial chemical. When
ethanol is blended with gasoline, the result is a cleaner, higheroctane
fuel than regular gas.
Fossil Fuel • This is a general term for combustible carbon
deposits of biological origin, including coal, oil, natural gas,
oil shales and tar sands. These fuels emit carbon dioxide into
the atmosphere when burned, significantly contributing to the
greenhouse effect and climate change.
Global Warming • An increase in the near surface temperature
of the Earth is called global warming. Global warming
has occurred in the distant past as the result of natural
influences. However, the term is most often used to refer to
the warming occurring as a result of increased emissions of
greenhouse gases. Scientists generally agree that the Earth’s
surface has warmed by about 0.6°C in the past 140 years. The
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently
concluded that increased concentrations of greenhouse gases
are causing a rise in the Earth’s surface temperature.
Greenhouse Effect • This is the effect produced as greenhouse
gases allow incoming solar radiation to pass through the earth’s
atmosphere. At the same time, prevents most of the outgoing
infrared radiation from the surface and lower atmosphere
from escaping into outer space. It is like a glass greenhouse
capturing the sun’s warmth and heating the interior space. This
process occurs naturally and, historically, has kept the earth’s
temperature at about 33°C warmer than it would otherwise be.
Current life on earth could not be sustained without the natural
greenhouse effect. (See also Global Warming.)

Greenhouse Gas • Any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in
the atmosphere is called a greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gases
include water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous
oxide (N2O), halogenated fluorocarbons (HCFCs), ozone (O3),
perfluorocarbons carbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) •
Composed of the world’s leading climate scientists, the IPCC was
established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and
the United Nations Environment Program. Its role is to assess
scientific, technical and socio-economic information that helps
our understanding of the risks associated with human-induced
climate change.
Integrated Watershed Management Plan • A watershed is a
defined area that gathers rainfall and other precipitation and
directs it to rivers, lakes or streams. A watershed management
plan sets out local priorities and actions for the users of the
watershed to ensure a healthy watershed can be maintained.
Integrated watershed management plans consider the provincial
land-use policies, existing development plans and zoning bylaws.
They must also specify linkages between water management and
land-use planning, and require consultation between the water
planning authority and the planning district.
Kyoto Protocol • This international agreement was reached in
1997 in Kyoto, Japan. It extends the commitments of countries
that supported the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
In particular, it sets targets for future emissions in developed
Methane (CH4) • This is a hydrocarbon that is one of the
six greenhouse gases to be controlled under the Kyoto
Protocol. Methane is produced through anaerobic (without
oxygen) decomposition of waste in landfills, animal digestion,
decomposition of animal wastes, production and distribution of
natural gas and oil, coal production, and incomplete fossil fuel
combustion. The atmospheric concentration of methane has been
shown to be increasing at a rate of about 0.6 per cent per year.
Its current concentration of about 1.7 parts per million by volume
(ppmv) is more than twice its pre-industrial value. However, the
rate of increase of methane in the atmosphere may be stabilizing.
Mitigation • Attempts to slow the process of global climate
change by lowering the level of greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere are referred to as mitigation. One of the principal
means of mitigating climate change is reducing the production of
greenhouse gases.
No Regrets • Measures that produce benefits equal or exceeding
their costs are referred to as “no regrets.” These benefits include
improved performance or reduced emissions of local/regional
pollutants. They exclude the benefits of climate change mitigation
(See Mitigation). They are sometimes known as “measures worth
doing anyway.”
Sequestration • The process of absorbing carbon dioxide
out of the air through the process of photosynthesis is called
sequestration. It converts carbon dioxide into plant sugars
containing carbon
Sink • An ecosystem, such as the oceans, forests or soils, that
removes and stores carbon from the air is called a sink. The sink
is a means of removing a chemical or gas, such as carbon dioxide
or methane, from the atmosphere and placing it in a permanent
or semi-permanent repository by transforming it into another
substance. Trees, for example, can be carbon sinks because they
are able to convert carbon dioxide from the air into plant sugars
through the process of photosynthesis.
Sustainable Development • This is a broad concept referring
to the need to integrate the satisfaction of near-term economic,
social and environmental interests with the protection of the
interests of future generations, including their need for a safe
and healthy environment. The 1987 UN World Commission on
Environment and Development defined sustainable development
as meeting “the needs of the present generation without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
T8 Lighting • T8 fluorescent lights are slim, high-efficiency tubes
that provide additional light and improved light quality compared
to traditional T12s. T8s are up to 30 per cent more efficient
and provide quiet, flicker-free operation, resulting in a more
comfortable environment.
Weather • This is the specific condition of the atmosphere at a
particular place and time. It is measured in terms such as wind,
temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, and
precipitation. In most places, weather can change from hour to
hour, day to day, and season to season. Climate is the average of
weather over time and space. A simple way of remembering the
difference is that ‘climate’ is what you expect (ex: cold winters)
and ‘weather’ is what you get (ex: a blizzard).
Zero Till • Zero till or no-till farming is an economically viable,
erosion-proof production system in which this year’s crop is
planted directly into the stubble from the previous year’s crop
with minimum soil disturbance.

Reference: http://www.ct.gov/dep/lib/dep/air/diesel/docs/dieseltechglossary.pdf